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2518, from Epistle 111, 3, Albertano ascribes directly to Seneca, Chaucer merely to " the book." Twice elsewhere, C. Few of Seneca's utterances are more striking than his good word for slaves (Ep., 47), and it is hard to believe from the evidence that Chaucer had not read the opening lines of this epistle: "And therfore seith Seneca: 'thy prudence sholde live benignely with thy thralles' " (I, 759). 68) quotes nothing from Peraldus' Tractatus de Viciis which could serve as the immediate basis of this passage in Chaucer, whose phrasing indicates acquaintance with the whole epistle: Think eek, that of swich seed as cherles springeth, of swich seed springen lordes. The same deeth that taketh the cherl, swich deeth taketh the lord. O has a strophe of only nine verses ; ABH have but eight Since in O the strophes usually consist of ten verses, it is probable that one verse has been lost Whether the omitted line belonged at the end of the strophe or else- where it is impossible to determine absolutely.
T„ E 1376, I 467, Chaucer quotes Seneca where his authority turns out to be portions of the Liber Consolationis not used in the Meliboeus. Wherf ore I rede, do right so with thy cherl, as thou woldest that thy lord dide with thee, if thou were in his plyt. I rede thee, certes, that thou, lord, werke in swich wyse with thy cherles, that they rather love thee than drede. On account of the lack of con- nection between 721 and 722, it seems likely that there may have been a verse between them in the original poem.
The Parson's Tale (§52) contains the story of the angry phi- in Seneca, but the two thoughts, that sin is its own punishment, no matter how successful, and that the body deserves consideration but should not expect servitude, are expressed in Epp. These passages are very likely the ultimate sources of the quotations. 11 Stories of this sort may easily have reached Chaucer from some secondary source. Digitized by 6 The Romanic Review Pardoner's discourse is shot through with Senecan thought, assimi- lated and adapted to the medieval context. O stinking cod, Fulfild of donge and of corrup- cioun 1 At either ende of thee foul is the soun. Thise cokes, how they stampe, and streyne, and grinde, And turnen substance into acci- dent, To fulfille al thy likerous talent! Digitized by G 8 The Romanic Review Al were it that myne auncestres were rude, Yet may the hye god, and so hope I, Grante me grace to liven vertuously. Jefferson, Chaucer and the Consolations of Philosophy of Boethius, 1917, PP. Chaucer and Seneca 9 The Wife of Bath's heroine quotes Seneca once more, on the subject of poverty : Glad povert is an honest thing, certeyn; This wol Senek and othere clerkes seyn. Change of pretonic e to 0 as in promier 325, donier 324, etc 117. In Cligis, 1007, 3429 ruie rhymes with enuie, fuie.
10 Libenter ex is, qui a te veniunt, cognovi familiariter te cum servis tuis vivere. 12 Probably of this origin is the Merchant's quotation of "Senek" to the effect that a man oghte him right wel avyse, To whom he yeveth his lond or his catel; (E 1523 ff.). O, wiste a man how many mala- dyes Folwen of excesse and of gloto- nyes, He wolde been the more mesur- able Of his diete, sittinge at his table. Out of the harde bones knocke they The mary, for they caste noght a-wey That may go thurgh the golet sof te and swote ; Of spicerye, of leef, and bark, and rote Shal been his sauce y-maked by delyt, To make him yet a newer appetyt. (95, 19.) proba istas, quae voluptates vocan- tur, ubi transcenderunt modum, poenas esse. Thanne am I gentil, whan that I biginne To liven vertuously and weyve sinne. Who-so that halt him payd of his poverte, I holde him riche, al hadde he nat a sherte. Foerster explains the t as a glide sound due to the position of the tongue in changing from u to i. Gaston Paris has pointed out that dervient put by Godefroy under desvier should be corrected to deruient i, etc However not only does the second element fre- quently disappear, but at times the first element is sacrificed to the second as in this case.
(47, 10.) sic cum inferiore vivas, quem- admodum tecum superiorem velis vivere. ostende, quis non sit: alius libi- dine servit, alius avaritiae, etc. (I7-) Assuredly, someone, Chaucer or another, has here been reading Seneca, not merely culling a posy from a florilegium; that it is Chaucer and not another we should perhaps prefer to leave unde- cided until we have more evidence. Digitized by Chaucer and Seneca 5 losopher rebuked by the child he is about to punish, which bears a resemblance to a story told of Socrates by Seneca in De Ira, I, 15, But this I pass over as not likely to yield anything to our present purpose, and with it the three exemplary anecdotes in the Somnour's Tale (D 2017 ff.) which are also told in De Ira. This I feel sure I have seen somewhere noted, but cannot recall where. Lowes, Chaucer and Dante's Convivio, Modern Philology, XIII, 19-33 (May, 1915) ; Bernard L. Foerster, Yvain, small ed., 4327 n., Guillaume d'Angleterre, 588 n., Erec, 119 n., Charrette, 5685 n. Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Paul, the genuineness of which few cared to call in ques- 1 For discussion of these supposititious works see E. In every instance but one he appears as an authority for some sentiment. " Let no one, even though he be of this family, if he be hiding the maiden, seek her dishonor." 798. from which ABH are derived had repeated this word in 815, substituting it for ramaint. Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. No author, indeed, with the exception of Ovid, is specifically quoted by Chaucer with so much frequency, though to several he is under far greater obligations. The W needed before the verb has been supplied from ABH. There is no doubt that m'amaint suits the context excellently and corresponds closely with que rendre le me daint, 814. Two sentences Chaucer ascribes to Seneca as he finds them in his source, represented by the Summa Casuum Poenitentiae of Raymund of Pennaforte, though Raymund gives the second of them (in his text the first) merely to Philosophus: "And lo, what seith Seneca in this matere. Vita: quis putas lupus agnam meant dissipavitt 717. He seith thus : ' Though I wiste that neither god ne man ne sholde nevere knowe it, yet wolde I have desdayne for to do sinne.'/ And the same Seneca also seith : *■ I am born to do gretter thinges than to be thral to my body, or than for to maken of my body a thral.' " 9 (I, 144 f.) But in another pas- 8 One of these, 1. There is nothing that I have found corresponding precisely to this Digitized by 4 The Romanic Review sage in the Parson's Tale we seem to have Chaucer's independent and first-hand adaptation of Senecan thought. The / is inserted in desturblier, perhaps by analogy with trobler [turbulare], 722.